Vientiane Agreement of 1973
UNSTABLE PEACE - Communisis OF LAOS
After a quarter century of intervention in Indochina, the United States have come to disengage. This results in the withdrawal of their military forces, their support and sacrifice of the Indochinese regimes they have hitherto maintained and supported. This also means a loss of influence in favor of the socialist and communists. In other words, the U.S. has accepted the change of political regime in Laos, Cambodia and South Vietnam. Also the "containment" they went to the disengagement, the immediate consequence of distant and it is predictable in Indochina because any withdrawal of the United States of this region causes the irretrievable loss pro-American regimes that are installed. Just as the U.S. withdrawal from Laos causes the fall of the pro-American regime in Vientiane.
I - UNSTABLE PEACE
The Agreement of 21 February 1973 on the restoration of peace and national concord in Laos, formally signed in Vientiane by the Government Office in Vientiane and the Lao Patriotic Forces Delegation "Pathet Lao", this Agreement constitutes a sum repetition of a part of the Zurich Agreement of June 22, 1961, on the other agreements between the Lao Patriotic Front and the Royal Lao Government in 1956-57, and 5-point proposal advanced by March 6, 1970 Lao Patriotic Front. Developed in 14 articles, stipulates the following key points:
-Independence, sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity of Laos, neutrality with the recall of the 1962 Geneva Agreement on Laos; non-interference foreign application of democratic freedoms of the people (Article 1);
-Cessation of hostilities, maintaining two provisional zones, the creation of a joint commission to implement the cease-fire, the prohibition of retaliation, the introduction of troops, armaments and ordnance in Laos and the withdrawal of all military personnel, regular troops and the dissolution of foreign military and paramilitary organizations and special forces of foreign countries are mutually release prisoners and military within 60 days formation of the Provisional Government of National Unity and National Policy Advisory Council (Articles 2-5);
Them free and democratic general elections to form a government of national unity definitive; training within 30 days from the date of the signing of the Interim Government of National Unity and National Policy Advisory Board containing an equal number of representatives of both Parties, invested by the king and operating according to the principle of unanimity, the neutralization of the royal capital of Luang Prabang and Vientiane, the administrative capital, the temporary management of the two zones by each party and the progressive establishment of normal relations between the two areas (articles 6 to 10);
-Creation and the role of the Joint Committee for the implementation of agreements and the role of the international commission for monitoring and control consists of India, Poland and Canada, with India as Chairman (Articles 11 to 12).
The Agreement of February 21 is supplemented by a second agreement called Memorandum of Agreement of 21 February 1973.
Government delegation in Vientiane
THE PROTOCOL OF 14 SEPTEMBER 1973.
If the Agreement of 21 February 1973 provides for the training within 30 days of the Provisional Government of National Unity and National Policy Advisory Council, the Protocol of September 14, defines the procedure for implementing the various clauses contained therein.
1 -) The Interim Government of National Unity bipartite
Under the provisions of the Protocol, the Provisional Government of National Unity and National Policy Advisory Council is formed the same day, April 5, 1974.
The interim government comprises 12 ministries and 26 members, including Prime Minister Prince Souvanna Phouma, and 2 figures working for peace, independence, neutrality and democracy.
Bipartite structure, it comprises an equal number of ministers and state secretaries from each of the two Lao Party: Part of the Vientiane government and the Party of Patriotic Forces Lao. Either: five ministerial portfolios, including the post of deputy prime minister, six secretaries of state portfolios, each Secretary of State as assistant to a minister belonging to the opposing party. From this assay it appears that apparently the government left Lao has a number of concessions to the right. Indeed reserving it most key ministries such as defense, interior, finance, she merely considered secondary departments, such as cults, information and tourism, public works , economics, foreign affairs. Just as knowing that the Prince Souvanna Phouma has long rallied to the right, she still consented to his chairmanship of the provisional government of national unity Furthermore this assay reflects government compared to in 1962 an increase of the left Lao. As it rose from 4 ministerial portfolios in June 1962 to 11 portfolios, including 6 secretaries of state in April 1974. With bipartisanship in the assay government devotes the disappearance of the de facto neutralists although they were predominant in 1962 to have held ministerial portfolios 8 of 16 (or half). Also suffer from the effects of the juggernaut of Vietnamese and Cambodian revolutionaries who liberated in the month of April throughout South Vietnam and Cambodia, the provisional government began to falter and knows the signs of internal instability, because in Following the forced resignation on June 16, 8 and 9 July 1975, 6 members of government, all belonging to the Party in Vientiane, were held three cabinet reshuffles. They spent the final disposal of the right and the strengthening of the left that has benefited from the fact the competition at least at government level of 6 persons in favor of peace and the policy of the Lao Patriotic Front.
Finally under Article 4 of Protocol at the Vientiane Agreement, which stipulates the principle of unanimity of view between each holder of a department and his deputy, the Protocol contains within itself the germ of paralysis. For if the former has no power over the second, in fact, the administrative hierarchy is abolished while the Secretary of State has become simply a political counterweight to his supervisor, the Minister.
Delegation of Patriotic Forces "Pathet Lao"
2 -) The National Advisory Council Policy
Since in the transient doing the Agreement of 21 February and the Protocol of 14 September 1973 there is no question of knowing any jurisdiction existing in the Assembly, the Lao revolutionaries managed a tour de force by accepted by the Party of the Vientiane government creating a new institution as the National Advisory Board policy. This is called to replace the previous House and was assigned by its founders as an advisory role through legislation.
1. Structure of the National Advisory Council policy.
According to the provisions of article 5 of the Vientiane Agreement, the Council consists of 42 members that are distributed as follows: 16 for the Party of Patriotic Forces, Part 16 for Vientiane government and 10 individuals selected mutually agreed upon by these two parties.
As regards its internal arrangement, the Board comprises:
A / a Standing Committee consisting of 10 members contributed equally to representatives of two parties and wearing a President, namely the Prince Souphanouvong, representative of the Party of Patriotic Forces, 2 vice presidents, each representing each Party, the first belonging to the Patriotic Party, holding the office of Secretary General (Article 5 of the Protocol).
B / 6 committees,
C / administrative office
Signing ceremony of the agreement in Vientiane in 1973, from left to right: Mr. and Mr. Pheng Phonsavanh Phoumi Vongvichith
2. Operation of the Board
Like what is in effect in the functioning of government, the Council operates on the principle of equality and unanimity of views between the two Parties. It meets only 2 times a year, each session only lasts a month. For the rest of time is the standing committee that works on its behalf.
3. Board's jurisdiction
Under the provisions of Article 7 of the Protocol is seen that the Council is an assembly having the same jurisdiction as the government. On the other hand, according to the same article, it appears that it exceeds the government policy and legislative jurisdiction because the latter must concurrently examine laws and regulations relating to general elections and the recommendations adopted by it.
3) Other measures of peace and national harmony
1. The cease-fire and release of prisoners.
It occurred immediately after the signing of the Agreement of 21 February. In order to supervise and monitor the cease-fire, we created a Joint Committee formed to the central half of military representatives of the Party of Patriotic Forces and half of representatives of the Party's military government in Vientiane. In cooperation with the International Commission for the supervision and monitoring of the cease-fire, the Joint Committee is responsible for enforcing the measures for the withdrawal of troops and foreign military personnel.
2. Neutralization of Vientiane and Luang
By agreement of 12 October 1973 the two parties resulted in the neutralization of two cities. It follows that the troops of the Patriotic Front have been introduced with 1000 men in the 1 st city and 500 in the second. These troops were formed with equal strength to those of the Party in Vientiane, the joint security forces charged with maintaining order and security of government and council.
a. Adoption of a government program in 18 points,
Two weeks after taking office the National Advisory Council Policy adopted April 24, 1974 a 18-point political program on the restoration of peace, independence, neutrality, democracy, unity and progress of Laos. Submitted to the Government, it has adopted on December 25. Domestically it focuses on democratic rights, democratic elections to form the national coalition government, economic development and social progress. Externally it focuses on the neutrality and the 5 Principles of Peaceful Coexistence.
b. The interim government of national unity powerless to solve the economic crisis.
If the Government has been successful with the masses Lao policies during the period from April 5, 1974 at the end of November 1975, he has been inept and powerless to solve the economic crisis that has beset the country. Instead we are witnessing a worsening of it leading to inflation, monetary disorder, the deficit balance of payments and budget support, social tensions, shortages of consumer goods and equipment.
II-Communisation OF LAOS
Like the Soviet October Revolution of 1917, during the 2nd half of 1975, the revolutionary process has accelerated, the Communist Party said Lao Lao People's Revolutionary Party emerges from the shadows to lead the final phase of the power part. It comprises 2 phases: firstly that of the extension and consolidation of the revolutionary forces, on the other hand, that the establishment of popular democracy.
A) The extension phase of communist revolutionary forces.
1) The continuation of the national revolution.
Undoubtedly occurred after the peace agreement of 21 February 1973 is revolutionary for a break. According to the famous Leninist tactics, because this allows the Lao People's Revolutionary Party, which emerged from the shadows to make leaps forward. In other words it allows him to consolidate and expand its base across the country, especially in the area controlled by the Vientiane regime, and this, to continue the national revolution. To do this, the People's Revolutionary Party applies the well-known tactic of Mao Tse Tung said the United Front tactics aimed at driving the imperialists to overthrow the bureaucrats, reactionaries on the one hand, and secondly, to form a government and administration to ensure the independence and national sovereignty to meet the people's interests.
In short it is the People's Revolutionary Party to resolve contradictions through two Lao society: first, the contradiction between the Lao people and the American multinational, on the other hand, the contradiction between the multinational people and the citizens .
In this respect the Agreement of 21 February and its Protocol of September 14, 1973 have resolved the contradiction that the 1st result is the withdrawal of foreign forces, including U.S. military forces and Thailand (not Vietnamese?). There remains the 2 nd to resolve conflict. It is for that party to "fight oppression inside the country, to achieve equality between the races, giving the consciousness of unity in order to increase the forces of revolution."
2) The revolutionary process and the seizure of power.
Concretely implement the Party applies in the area still controlled by the government in Vientiane its political apparatus consisting of senior political and military. Then once on site and covered both by agreements in force, by 18 points in the program, the Party cadres carry out their activities against the Party of undermining of Vientiane. Therefore following the example of the Chinese revolution, for the 1st time in the history of Laos, a mass movement was born in the aftermath of the Peace Accords of 1973. Grew constantly, it brings together 21 organizations or Ongkane (actually 29 organizations) that runs a Coordination Committee, it is noted that this movement has received support discrete People's Revolutionary Party, whose special representative in Vientiane Mr. Sanan Southichak, feverishly deploys its activities.
Also at the beginning of May 1975 start larger mass demonstrations with slogans claimants. At first they demand the resignations of senior politicians and military leaders, then they besieged ministries held by the rightists, the premises belonging to the American missions: USIS, USAID, American Embassy and demanded the withdrawal of Americans. And whenever the masses in revolt demanding the protection of the Patriotic Front forces. In short the revolutionary conjuncture with the urban masses apply to create in the main cities of Laos an atmosphere worthy of insurgency tactics Leninist. Their goal is to terrorize the rightist leaders and make their lives unbearable. They achieved their objective in full on May 9 when all civilian and military leaders most targeted by protesters belonging to the Party in Vientiane have successively resigned from their posts to take refuge in Thailand.
Their fall will cover all institutions rightists. For the first time in the history of Laos refugees form a continuous stream and reaches about 400,000 people from all walks of a population of 3 million inhabitants. Thailand has become their first haven. Subsequently they are welcomed around the world thanks to the generosity of governments and peoples of hospital: France, Australia, USA, Canada, etc.. ... And thanks to the benevolence of the High Commissioner of United Nations for Refugees and Stateless Persons.
The leaders of Vientiane being overthrown by the violence of the masses on the support of the Popular Front forces and assisted by the Vietnamese Communist Party, the way is clear for the People's Revolutionary Party from taking power.
Press release after the signing of the agreement in Vientiane by the Head of the government delegation in Vientiane Mr. Pheng Phonsavanh
B) INTRODUCTION OF THE PEOPLE'S DEMOCRACY
1) The establishment of People's Committees in Laos.
The month of May 1975 is when "the crisis is ripe" where the conscious proletariat is ready to fight not for moving the balance of power but for the destruction of bourgeois parliamentarism, a republic of Soviets of Workmen's and Soldiers for the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. With the support that is provided by the presence of several divisions of elite North Vietnamese in the countryside and in the immediate vicinity of large cities. The party proceeded to the gradual establishment of popular committees to seize power. On August 23, 1975, during a mass meeting at the stage of That Luang, announcing the formation of a revolutionary Administrative Committee for the capital Vientiane. Seizing the administrative power of this city, it in fact occupies the central government of the country. November has seen many important events that changed the face of Laos. In the countryside, the Party has completed the organization of elections to form the basis of popular assemblies. These have arisen at all levels of local and provincial governments: villages, towns, districts. Even Vientiane has also its Administrative Committee revolutionary committees of districts. It is the forerunner of the triumph of the revolution.
November 26, during a mass meeting at the National Stadium, the Administrative Committee celebrates groundbreaking introduction of the Soviets Lao across the country. On this occasion he openly calls for the overthrow of the regime in Vientiane. Two days after he organized a monster organization in which protesters demanding the dissolution of the Provisional Government of National Unity, National Policy Advisory Council and the abolition of the monarchy, the days are counted for these institutions.
At the end of November on the invitation of the Patriotic Front, the government and the Council met in "Congress" to Vieng Xay (North Laos), seat of the Central Committee of the Patriotic Front. At the same time asserting his authority, the Administrative Committee sends revolutionary in the province and elsewhere Samneua a first batch of 300 senior officials and military leaders in Vientiane for them to follow the course of "re-education" policy. In fact it is well established that these people are simply held as prisoners of war and treated as such.
On 29 November, after deliberation, the government and the Council decided to dissolve, thus meeting the requirements of the masses. Armed with the joint resolution of these two institutions, the Prime Minister, the Chairman and Deputy Prime Minister, Secretary General of the Patriotic Front, flew to Luang Prabang where they are delivered to the king's ultimatum SAVANG Vathana Vieng Xay him asked to resign, it could not do anything other than resign himself, as the balance of power is uneven. On the same day by royal rescript, for his patriotism and happiness of the Lao people, he meant his abdication, noting that there is a discrepancy between the monarchy and he embodies the people's democratic regime that will be born under imminent.
2) Proclamation of the LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
Having reached their goal, these three people came to Vientiane where preparations to convene the so-called National Congress of People's Representatives were made in secret, and what needed to happen happened. For 2 days 1 and 2 December 1975, was held on the outskirts of Vientiane, said Congress attended by 270 "elected" the people, who include many senior People's Revolutionary Party. The Congress was held under the scenario. Delegates have merely adopted by acclamation and freehand all resolutions read in the forum.
Also after hearing the royal rescript of surrender made by the Crown Prince VONG SAVANG, the resignation speech of the Prime Minister, the delegates did they hailed the abolition of the monarchy and the founding of the Lao PDR . Then they unanimously elected Prince Souphanouvong as president and chairman of the Supreme People's Assembly which has just been created. They also appointed the former king SAVANG Vathana as supreme adviser of the President of the Republic. Note that this position is purely honorary.
Furthermore, the proposal of President Chirac, they approved the constitution of the Government of the Republic headed by Kaysone Phomvihane, with the 1 st Minister Prince Souvanna Phouma is designated as an adviser.
After the seizure of power by applying its agenda and the Marxist-Leninist principles on popular democracy, the People's Revolutionary Party is working to strengthen its grip on state institutions and to exercise dictatorship so-called proletarian dictatorship of the proletariat.
It is therefore for him to purge the state and people. In other words, it is to consolidate the victory of the revolution. But it also means re-educate millions of peasants, small businessmen, hundreds of thousands of employees, officials, intellectuals, to subordinate all to the proletarian state.
Visit the Pathet Lao in the first Minister Prince Souvanna Phouma after signing the agreement in Vientiane
3) Purification and cleansing of the state and people
Specifically the state is purged of its elements unsafe for the revolution. Senior officials, military leaders are arrested and sent to reeducation camps installed by the Vietnamese political commissars for an indefinite period. Hundreds of people will be murdered, buried alive by the "Can Bo" of Hanoi, and the others are bound to a system of internment in which political and civic education to productive work combines manual. The whole is crowned with criticism and self-criticism by which everyone must make amends for its past crimes? It goes without saying that these "residents" are closely monitored and any attempt to escape are severely punished.
On the other hand cleansing and purification also reach the people. Now it is squared, every neighborhood, every city block, every village has its own grass roots organization and its own "conference center" in which all residents follow the policy course and learn to live a new life and new revolutionary ethic. For cons the people are called to protect and defend the order and security of the new regime, it follows that a portion of the population opposes every day and went into exile abroad. Approximately 400,000 people in a population of 3 million people have fled the country, there are 95,000 dead or missing: died in the camps of "rehabilitation" in prisons, repression, died while crossing the Mekong River by swimming, by famine, torture ..., leaving behind thousands of widows and orphans.
The government is struggling with many difficulties. After severe hemorrhage technicians and capital due to the exodus of most of the population, the new Laos is bloodless and needs capital, competent men, equipment. In addition, there are serious errors in running the country. The extortion and arbitrary arrests committed by party cadres causing popular discontent and economic paralysis.
Since the introduction of the dictatorial regime in Laos in 1975, the Lao people has become a people "dumb, no rights, no voice and no hope," where corruption judge's honesty, guilt condemn the innocent and where Lao is the owner of his property.
At a time when the international situation is undergoing profound political, Laos is still basically a Stalinist dictatorship, where the single party (People's Revolutionary Party) has ruled the country unchallenged under an authoritarian Marxist-Leninist and that human rights are violated, prisoners of conscience remain imprisoned without trial and inhumanly treated and its inhabitants have sunk into poverty and the democratic expressions face many obstacles.
Faced with the alarming situation, both politically and economically and socially, characterized by:
1.) Lack of basic freedoms, violations of human rights and ethnic and religious conflicts are in turmoil and insecurity and fear are increasing;
2.) Presence of more numerous and uncontrolled settlers and Vietnamese communist soldiers in the national territory under the Treaty of vassalage special signed July 18, 1977 in Vientiane peer Kaysone Phomvihane and Pham Van Dong, Lao premiers and Vietnamese, which formalizes the dependence and occupancy of the Lao PDR (Laos) in favor of "Vietnam Brother" because of the blood debts incurred by the Lao communist leaders to the Vietnamese Communist Party that helped them take the powers they currently hold;
3.) Widespread poverty north and south of the country and the emergence of slums around cities with a skyrocketing development of brothels, nightclubs and prostitution. Corruption unprecedented in the history of Laos, nurtured and maintained by the regime in place that still believes in the illusion of Marxism-Leninism.
Since 1986, the timid opening attempted by the Communists seems to have responded primarily to the need to restore an economy type socialist-communist bankrupt rather than consider a genuine democratization of political institutions in Laos.
In 1988, about 14 years after the transformation of the United Republic, a legislature was elected with only those candidates nominated by the communist People's Revolutionary Party. On August 16, 1991, this room show of hands a constitution that reaffirms the rule of the Communist Party of Laos.
Notons que malgré l'ouverture du pays à l'économie de marché, malgré la bienveillance des pays donateurs et l'abondance des aides bilatérales et multinationales aussi bien économiques que techniques et financières , le développement économique et social du Laos n'arrive pas à prendre corps, il est inondé des prêts non déboursés , de nombreux projets et de programmes de développement sont voués à l'échec et rendus inefficaces, à cause de manque de personnels qualifiés et du régime politique du pays . Le Laos à présent,, est très dépendant de l'aide extérieure directe , il continue à vivre aux dépens des dons et des aides des organisations internationales et des grandes puissances ainsi que des fonds envoyés par les Laotiens d'outre-mer à leurs familles vivant au Laos dans une situation très précaire ; et de l'exploitation dévastatrice de ses ressources naturelles . Nous déplorons que les Laotiens expatriés après les évènements de 1975 qui demeurent attachés à leur pays et dont un grand nombre constitue une ressource de compétence, anxieux de pouvoir servir leur pays natal, n'aient pas été pris en compte pour pallier le manque de ressources humaines. Nous craignons que dans ces conditions, le Laos ne réalisant ni démocratisation, ni développement économique, mette en péril son existence même, en tant que nation viable et, par voie de conséquence, menace la paix et la sécurité de la Région du monde.
L'évolution de la situation internationale s'est améliorée, en particulier en Europe de l'Est où le régime communiste se désagrège et en Asie où les pays dirigés par le régime dictatorial retrouvent ou tentent de rétablir la réconciliation et l'entente nationale après plusieurs années de conflits, c'est grâce à la clairvoyance des grandes puissances, des organisations internationales, des femmes et des hommes de bonne volonté, épris de justice et de paix que de tels résultats ont été obtenus.
Avec force de conviction , le Conseil National Lao pour la Démocratie , composé des forces démocratiques , des patriotes et des représentants de l'opposition à toutes les formes de dictature, en lutte pour la liberté, la démocratie, la réconciliation , la réforme et les droits de l'homme , exige :
1.) la cessation de toutes exactions et arrestations arbitraires commises à l'encontre des patriotes qui réclament la liberté, la réconciliation, la réforme et le multipartisme ;
2.) l'organisation d'un dialogue constructif entre les dirigeants actuels de Vientiane et les représentants des mouvements démocratiques à l'intérieur et à l'extérieur du Laos, soucieux de participer à la reconstruction de leur pays natal en Etat de droit ;
3.) que le Laos demeure la Patrie des Laotiens de tous bords , y compris ceux qui ont adopté la nationalité de leur pays d'accueil ;
4.) la dénonciation tous les traités qui n'ont pas été conclus d'égal à égal avec les pays étrangers, en particulier avec les pays voisins, et qui portent atteinte à la souveraineté nationale ;
5.) la libération sans conditions des prisonniers d'opinion incarcérés sans jugement et inhumainement traités et ce, sans aucunes représailles ;
6.) le retrait total et sans conditions, des forces étrangères du Laos , sous contrôle de l'ONU ;
7.) les élections générales libres au suffrage universel avec la participation de toutes les formations politiques à l'intérieur et à l'extérieur du pays sous la surveillance internationale ;
8.) l'édification d'un régime politique véritablement démocratique , libre et neutre, reflétant les aspirations les plus ardentes du peuple lao par un Référendum .
These are the foundations and conditions that would allow us to hope, to both sides to initiate a frank and sincere dialogue for a brotherly understanding, erasing the past and enmities and bring serenity and happiness in the heart of all the Lao who aspire only to rebuild their unity for the future of their children in a state of law.
The world is changing and evolving, with globalization and the globalization of the economy and the disappearance of the old world order governed by the Cold War and the balance of power, relations between nations and men need to be redefined to establish a world that include all the people in the process of sustainable development and ensure the future generations the right to be alive. Le Laos , pour pouvoir se développer et s'intégrer dans le monde actuel, a besoin de réforme politique, économique et social et avec celle-ci de toutes les forces de ses compatriotes à l'intérieur et à l'extérieur du Pays . Il est urgent d'engager des réformes indispensables pour sortir le pays de la pauvreté et du sous-développement.
Dans cette perspective le Conseil National Lao pour la Démocratie est prêt à aider le Laos à réussir sa réforme et à participer de façon concrète au développement économique et social de la nation, développement qui doit déboucher durablement sur la concorde, la solidarité et la prospérité du Laos. Il reconnait que les Lao de l'intérieur et de l'extérieur du Pays, par leurs qualités humaines, culturelles et spirituelles qui leur sont propres, n'ont jamais été coupés les uns des autres, quelles que soient les barrières politiques qui leur sont dressées et par conséquent conservent des chances sérieuses pour l'entente et les dialogues constructifs.
Le Conseil National pour la Démocratie invite la Communauté internationale , en particulier les organisations internationales et les pays donateurs à revoir leur politique d'assistance et à exiger en contrepartie de leurs aides des résultats tangibles et vérifiables tant en matière des droits de l'homme que de la démocratie et la lutte contre la corruption. Il souhaite que les Puissances et les organisations internationales ayant de bonnes relations avec le Laos, à encourager ces démarches précitées et étendre la coopération aux Organisations représentatives des aspirations démocratiques lao à l'étranger.
Conformément aux intérêts de la nation, pour répondre aux aspirations les plus profondes du peuple lao pour établir l'entente et la concorde, et d'édifier un Laos démocratique, libre, souverain et prospère, le Conseil National Lao pour la Démocratie demande aux Autorités de Vientiane à prendre en considération ces aspirations .
Le Conseil National Lao pour la Démocratie fait appel solennellement aux gouvernements, aux organisations internationales : ONU , CE (Communauté européenne) , ASEAN et aux personnalités, épris de liberté , de paix et de justice, ayant des relations avec le Laos, de bien vouloir exercer leur influence sur le Parti et le gouvernement de Vientiane afin de faciliter les contacts entre les dirigeants lao actuels et les responsables des Mouvements politiques lao à l'étranger afin de rétablir l'entente et la concorde nationale, en vue de reconstruire ensemble le Laos en véritable Etat de droit, garantissant les libertés et les droits du peuple lao, et d'user de leurs droits d'ingérence auprès de la République démocratique socialiste du Viêt-Nam afin qu'elle retire ses troupes du Laos et qu'elle laisse aux Laotiens le soin de régler eux même leurs affaires intérieures par la voie pacifique.
Le Conseil National Lao soutient sans réserve toutes les actions en faveur de la réconciliation, l'entente et la concorde nationale. Il renouvèle sa confiance aux pays amis, aux organisations internationales , aux femmes et aux hommes de bonne volonté , épris de liberté et de justice, dans l'effort qu'ils entreprennent pour trouver une solution honorable au problème laotien .
I got this off the internet as well, talking about what happen in the "Seminar Camps"
As you also know, several former high ranking Royal Lao officials were sent tovarious re-education camps that LPDR likes the world to call as a SeminarCamp, but in reality it is a "Gulag or a Death Camp."I want to share with you the lives of those individuals that were in this Gulagthat was once called Camp No. 7. The information that I will share with you isfrom one of the eyewitness who survived more than ten years of torture, and wasable to live to talk about his experiences in this Gulag. This person currentlyis living in the U.S, and is willing to testify if needed.Camp No.7, formerly known as Camp No. 5A, was reserved for the prisoners thatwere categorized by the LPDR as the top enemies of the regime. These prisonerswere arrested and separated from other prisoners in other re-education camps onOctober 12, 1977. They were:1. Lt. Gen. Bounleuth Sanichanh, Armed Forces Inspector2. Lt. Gen. Bounpone Makthepharak, Supreme Commander of the Royal LaoGovernment Armed Forces3. Lt. Gen. Phasouk S. Rasaphak, Armed Forces Chief of Staff4. Brig. Gen. Bounchanh Savathphayphane, 1st Intervention Division Commander.5. Brig. Gen. Kane Insixiengmay, Logistic Division Director6. Brig. Gen. Atsaphangthong Pathammavong, Capital City SecurityCommander7. Brig. Gen. Bounleung Rattanabanlang, Military Security Commander8. Brig. Gen. Bounthieng Venevongsoth, Cease - Fire Committee9. Brig. Gen. Chao Sinh Saysana, Operations Division Commander10. Brig. Gen. Ly Lithilusa, Intelligence Division Commander11. Brig. Gen. Nouphet Daoheuang, 3rd Region Commander12. Brig. Gen. Thongphanh Kanocksy, Defense Ministry Spokesman13. Ret. Lt. Gen. Ouane Rathikoun, Council Committee for the King14. H.E. Issara Don Sasourith, Irrigation Dept. Director15. H.E. Khamchanh Pradith, Ambassador to Australia16. H.E. Liene Phravongviengkham, Ambassador to Peking17. H.E. Pheng Phongsavanh, Minister of Interior18. H.E. Soukanh Vilaysane, Minister of Veterans Affairs19. *H.E. Touby Lyfoung, Council Committee for the King20. Col. Amkha Khathakhanthamixay, Signals Division Director21. **Col. Khamphanh Thammakhanty, Chief of G-2, 1st Military Region22. Police Col. Heng Saythavy, Pakse Province Senator23. Police Col. Kavinh Keonakhone, Rallied from Pathet Lao Forces24. Police Lt. Col. Khammouk Phaengsyaroun, Pakse Police Commander25. Maj. Sivilay Phetsomphou, Rallied from Pathet Lao Forces26. Capt. Sery Sayakham, Engineering Division27. **Col. Phom Phanthavong, Bankeun Subdivision Cmdr, was arrested onSeptember 19, 1978, one month prior to the arrested of the above twenty-sixprisoners.This Camp No. 7, was divided into two prison areas, prison A and Prison B. Inprison A's area, there were two jail cells, and the area of this prison campwas about 20m x 25m or 60 ft x 75 ft. One cell was used to house prisonerswhile another was used as a kitchen. In prison B's area, there were three jailcells. The area of this prison B was about 70m x 25m or 210 ft x 75 ft. PrisonA and B are in the same vicinity, but are separate entities.On October 28, 1977, 26 prisoners were locked up in Prison B's area. Thesmaller jail cell with 5m x 8m x 2.10m or 15ft x 24ft x 6.3ft housed 7prisoners:1. H.E Pheng Phongsavanh***2. H.E. Touby Lyfoung***3. Lt. Gen. Bounpone Markthepharack***4. Lt. Gen. Phasouk Sor Ratsaphak****5. Brig. Gen. Chaosinh Saysana6. Brig. Gen. Atsaphangthong Pathammavong7. Maj. Sivilay Phetsomphou****The bigger jail cell 5m x 11m x 2.10m or 15ft x 33 ft x 6.3 ft housed 19prisoners. These two jail cells were built similarly with the same style but nowindows, and they were dark 24 hours/day. Prisoners were allowed to comeoutside only once a week for 15 minutes just to take a bath.On the middle of November 1977, eleven more prisoners were brought into PrisonB's area. These prisoners mostly belonged to the Lao Royal family. They were:1. Chao Sysouphanh Thalangsy, younger brother of King Sisavang Vatthana2. Chao Bouavone Vatthana, Houakhong Governor and Brother of King SisavangVatthana3. Chao Thongsouk Vatthana, brother of King Sisavang Vatthana4. Chao Sisanvangvatthana (Chao Keu), Son number 4th of King SisavangVatthana5. Chao Manivong Khammao, Secretary for the Royal Lao Palace6. Chao Souk Bouavong, former Samneua's Mayor during 1939-40, and Minister ofPublic Works and Transportation7. H.E Bong Souvannavong, Former Royal Lao National Assembly in 1947and President of Lao Houam Samphanh Political Party8. Ret. Pol. Maj Gen. Lith Luenamachack, former Royal Lao National PoliceDirector at the time of his arrested he was working for the Lao Red Cross inVientiane.9. Police Sgt. Bao Phommy Phanhvongsa, from Samneua, Houaphanh Province10. Police Sgt. Bao Thong from Samneau, Houaphanh Province11. Sgt. Phimpha, from Savannakhet Province and was personal driver of Mr. BounPhommahasay former Lao People Army Commander.Finally on November 24, 1977 at 5:00PM, the guards moved 11 prisoners fromPrison A's area to Prison B's area, and it increased prisoners in the cell Bfrom 19 to 30 in this dark cell. The next morning, prisoners saw KingSisavang Vatthana, the Queen, and the Crown Prince stood next to Prison Cell A.The guards brought His Majesty, Her Majesty and the Crown Prince to prison Aarea since the night of November 24, 1977.Life in this Gulag was harsh and prisoners were not allowed to talk to eachother. The guards allowed only 5 prisoners to work. Col. AmkhaKhathakhanthamisay and Col. Khamphanh Thammakhanty were allowed to work ascooks. Bao Phommy Phanhvongsa, Bao Thong, and Mr. Phimpha were allowed to lookfor firewood for the kitchen. The rest of the prisoners in this camp wereallowed outside only once a week, two people at a time on Saturday, just totake a bath.Due to the physical and mental torture along with malnutrition, within twoyears 24 prisoners were dead and only 16 still survived, but more than half ofthe surviving prisoners could not even walk without help.Two weeks after the death of King Sisavang Vatthana on April, 1980, the Queen,who was no longer able to walk, was sent to Female Prison Camp between Sop Haoand Mouang Poua on the way to Samneua.Here is the list of the 24 deaths in Camp No. 7:Deaths from August to December 1978:1. Chao Bouavone Vatthana2. Chao Sisavangvatthana (Chao Keu)3. Lt. Gen. Ouane Rathikoune4. Chao Thongsouk Vatthana5. Brig. Gen. Kane Insixiengmay6. Brig. Gen. Ly Liththiluesa7. H.E. Bong Souvannavong8. Chao Souk BouavongDeaths from February to October 1979:1. Police Maj. Gen. Lith Luenamachack2. Brig. Gen. Phasouk S. Ratsaphak3. H.E. Pheng Phongsavanh4. H.E. Soukanh Vilaysane5. H.E Touby Lyfoung (murdered by the guard after taking a bath)6. H.E. Itsara Donsasorith7. Cpt. Sery Sayakham8. Chao Manivong Khammao9. Maj. Sivilay Phetsomphou.Deaths from January to May, 1980:1. Brig. Gen. Thongphanh Kanoksy2. The Crown Prince Chao Vongsavang3. Chao Souphanthalangsy4. King Sisavang Vatthana5. H.E. Khamchanh Pradith6. Lt. Gen. Bounpone Makthepharak7. H.E. Liene Pravongviengkham
This picture shows a UN guard raising the Laotian flag. UN Secretary-General Dag HAMMARSKJOLD (center) and Mr. SOUVANNAVONG, representative of Laos look on; seen between them is Mr. LY CHIN LY, representative of Cambodia; other representatives of the new Member Countries stand at the foot of the poles bearing their nations' flags. Flags seen are (from left): Laos, Cambodia, Libya, Nepal, Ceylon, Finland, Bulgaria, Rumania, Austria and Italy.
14 December 1955